For years she had been hailed as the English Deborah, the saviour of the English people, and now it seemed that this is what she had really become. She was now Bellona, the goddess of war, and in triumph she had led her people to glory, defeating the greatest power in the 16th century world.
Spanish Armada June to September Glossary: Philip devised his plan to invade England by means of the Armada during the period tohis purpose being to depose the heretic Protestant Queen Elizabeth and reinstate the Catholic religion in England.
Against her initial inclination, Queen Elizabeth I of England had increasingly become a figurehead for the Protestant struggle in France and the Netherlands, where the Dutch were in revolt against Spanish rule. Her subjects had enraged the Spanish King by raiding his American possessions and even the coastline of Spain itself: Drake sacked Cadiz in and the Earl of Leicester was leading an English contingent assisting the Dutch revolt in the Netherlands.
Execution of Mary Queen of Scots: Spanish Armada June to September The Pope excommunicated Elizabeth and issued an encyclical absolving Catholics from their allegiance to the English Crown, encouraging a series of plots to murder the Queen, who in turn executed the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots inthe focus of the plots.
Once his army had conquered England, Phillip II would appoint a new king or assume the throne himself. He was confident, as were his religious advisers, that any inadequacy in his planning would be remedied by divine intervention. For the Spanish the Armada was a religious crusade marked by a number of crusader emblems.
Phillip laboured under several misconceptions: Another was that a seaborne invasion could be effected in the presence of a powerful and undefeated English fleet. A third was that the Spanish forces in the Netherlands could get to sea in spite of the numerous and active Dutch fleet. A fourth was that the Duke of Parma was prepared to commit his professional reputation to such a hazardous scheme.
Spanish Armada June to September Philip wrote a stream of written orders and directions to the Marquis de Santa Cruz and the Duke of Parma setting out in detail every aspect of the operation.
In accordance with these instructions the Armada assembled at Lisbon and the necessary ammunition and stores were gathered and loaded onto the ships. In Februarywith the long gestated plans finally approaching culmination, the Marquis de Santa Cruz died, leaving Philip to find a replacement able to control the disparate and fractious elements within the enormous fleet and its accompanying military force.
In the armed forces of 16th Century Spain command could only be effectively exercised by someone of elevated social status, particularly when he would have to work in close co-operation with a nobleman as senior as the Duke of Parma. A striking feature of the Armada campaign is that Medina Sidonia performed this overwhelming obligation so well in spite of his lack of experience; no doubt due in part to his own character but also to the dedication and expertise of his senior deputies.
Marquis de Santa Cruz: The Armada comprised squadrons of different types of vessel. The principal naval ships were the great galleons of Portugal, sailing vessels with guns and naval crews. Philip drafted into the Armada vessels built for Mediterranean conditions: A compromise vessel intended to have the robustness of the galleon and the manoeuvrability of the galley were the galeases, having masts and oars, of which the Armada had four.
Central to the Armada was the mass of merchant vessels, known as hulks or urcas, converted for war by the addition of higher fore and after castles and a greater complement of guns and carrying the Spanish army with its artillery and baggage. Many of these ships came from the towns of the Hanseatic League in the Baltic.
Duke of Medina Sidonia, reluctant commander of the Spanish Armada: Spanish Armada June to September Spanish archives suggest an impressive operation in providing supplies for the expedition, but conceal its inadequacies:Spanish Armada, also called Armada or Invincible Armada, Spanish Armada Española or Armada Invencible, the great fleet sent by King Philip II of Spain in to invade England in conjunction with a Spanish army from Flanders.
England’s attempts to repel this fleet involved the first naval battles to be fought entirely with heavy guns, and. The spectacular but unsuccessful attempt by King Philip II of Spain to invade Elizabethan England in The Armada is for the English the classic foreign threat to their country and a powerful icon of national identity.
The Spanish Armada sailed from Spain in July The Spanish Armada’s task was to overthrow protestant England lead by Queen Elizabeth I. The Spanish Armada proved to be an expensive disaster for the Spanish but for the English it was a celebrated victory making Sir Francis Drake even more of a hero than he already was and even having an impact on Tudor Christmas celebrations!
Start studying The Spanish Armada. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. 9th August What did T. Fernandez-Armesto say about the attempt of the Spanish to invade England?
At first the aim of the Spanish Armada was to liberate the captive Queen of Scots, but when Mary was executed for conspiring Elizabeth's death in , Philip planned to invade England in the name of his daughter, the Infanta Isabella.
A giant Spanish invasion fleet was completed by , but Sir Francis Drake’s daring raid on the port of Cadiz delayed the Armada’s departure until May