Schemas Imagine what it would be like if you did not have a mental model of your world. It would mean that you would not be able to make so much use of information from your past experience or to plan future actions. Schemas are the basic building blocks of such cognitive models, and enable us to form a mental representation of the world.
New behaviors or changes in behaviors are acquired through associations between stimuli and responses Information processing leads to understanding and retention We construct our own knowledge of the world based on individual experiences Behaviorism Behaviorism stems from the work of B.
Skinner and the concept of operant conditioning. Behaviorism theorists believe that knowledge exists independently and outside of people.
They view the learner as a blank slate who must be provided the experience. Behaviorists believe that learning actually occurs when new behaviors or changes in behaviors are acquired through associations between stimuli and responses.
Thus, association leads to a change in behavior.
Learning process The learning process is based on objectively observable changes in behavior. Behavior theorists define learning simply as the acquisition of a new behavior or change in behavior.
The theory is that learning begins when a cue or stimulus from the environment is presented and the learner reacts to the stimulus with some type of response. Consequences that reinforce the desired behavior are arranged to follow the desired behavior e.
The change in behavior of the learner signifies that learning has occurred. Teachers use Behaviorism when they reward or punish student behaviors. Examples and applications of behaviorist learning theory: Learners do what they are told and do not take the initiative to change or improve things.
The learner is only prepared for recall of basic facts, automatic responses or performing tasks.Unlike behaviorist learning theory, where learners are thought to be motivated by extrinsic factors such as rewards and punishment, cognitive learning theory sees motivation as largely intrinsic.
Because it involves significant restructuring of existing cognitive structures, successful learning requires a major personal investment on the part.
3. Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning. Drawing on CLT, dual coding, and other cognitive theories of learning, the experimental research of Richard Mayer () has led to his cognitive theory of multimedia learning (CTML). This theory was in contrast to developmental theories of the time and, particularly, Jean Piaget's stage theory of cognitive development which assumed that master higher-order skills doesn't depended on successfully learned lower-order skills, but rather on the specific stage in cognitive development, related to age.
Unlike behaviorism, cognitive information processing is governed by an internal process rather than by external circumstance. The cognitive approach to learning theory pays more attention to what goes on inside the learner’s head and focuses on mental processes rather than observable behavior.
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process. This paper discusses the history of cognitive-learning theories and how they grew to shape the way one perceives, organizes, stores, and retrieves information.
The paper, after providing. a. definition and synopsis of cognitive theory and its basic concepts, turns to the theories' philosophical foundations, beginning with Plato.