Overview[ edit ] Masculine qualities and roles are considered typical of, appropriate for, and expected of boys and men. The concept of masculinity varies historically and culturally; although the dandy was seen as a 19th-century ideal of masculinity, he is considered effeminate by modern standards. Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior.
Outlook Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder that manifests as a fear of situations where escape could be difficult, or in which help would not be available if something bad were to happen.
The word comes from the ancient Greek word "agora," referring to a place of assembly or market place. The condition is often misunderstood as a fear of open spaces but is, in reality, more complex.
Agoraphobia may involve a fear of crowds, bridges or of being outside alone About 1. The median onset age is 20 years. Fast facts on agoraphobia Here are some key points about agoraphobia.
More detail is in the main article. Agoraphobia often develops after having one or more panic attacks. It can lead to various fears, such as the fear of open spaces and the fear of places where escape is difficult, such as elevators.
Agoraphobia can make it difficult for a person to leave their house. Physical symptoms include chest pains, dizziness, and shortness of breath. Agoraphobia is often treated medically with antidepressants or anxiety-reducing medicine.
Most people with agoraphobia can get better through treatment. Agoraphobia is an extreme avoidance of situations that could cause panic. An anxiety disorder is when a feeling of anxiety does not go away and tends to grow worse over time. One type of anxiety disorder is a panic disorder, where panic attacks and sudden feelings of terror can occur without warning.
Agoraphobia is one such panic disorder.
Agoraphobic panic attacks are linked to a fear of places where it is hard to escape or where help may not be available. Places that can induce agoraphobia include those that can make a person feel embarrassed, helpless, or trapped, such as crowded areas, bridges, public transport and remote areas.
Most people develop agoraphobia after having had one or more panic attacks. These attacks cause them to fear further attacks, so they try to avoid the situation in which the attack occurred. People with agoraphobia may need help from a companion to go to public places, and may at times feel unable to leave home.
Recent changes in diagnostic criteria The terms of diagnosis have recently changed. SinceDSM-5 states that people with agoraphobia no longer need to acknowledge the excessiveness of their anxiety in relation to the cause of the phobia.
In DSM-4, a person aged under 18 years had to have the condition for at least 6 months to receive a diagnosis.
In DSM-5, the 6-months duration has been extended to all patients. This is to avoid the overdiagnosis of transient, or fleeting, unrelated fears. DSM-4 also linked the diagnoses for panic disorder and agoraphobia, but this changed in DSM-5 because a considerable number of patients with agoraphobia do not experience panic symptoms.
Panic disorder and agoraphobia are now two separate diagnoses, and the labeling of "agoraphobia with or without panic disorder" no longer applies. Treatment Agoraphobia is usually treated with a combination of medication and psychotherapy. Treatment is effective for most people with agoraphobia, but it can be harder to treat if people do not get early help.
Medication Healthcare professionals can prescribe either one or both of the following types of medication. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIs are a type of antidepressant that can be prescribed to treat agoraphobia.
Other types of antidepressants can also be prescribed, but the adverse effects may be greater.Anxiety disorders can occur in the context of medical illness, 33 and the clinician should consider an intricate relationship between medical illnesses and anxiety disorders.
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Operant conditioning including token economy Chaney et al () Funhaler used to reward correct use of inhaler. Positive role models Bandura et al () Transmission of aggression. Students discuss similarities between the methods used in each position of the debate.
Home > A Level and IB > Psychology > Biological explanations for phobic disorders. Biological explanations for phobic disorders. / 5. Created by: blueberrifantom; Discuss two or more biological explanations of phobic disorders (8 + 16 marks) / 5.
Phobias. / 5.
Phobic Disorders! Discuss the biological explanation for phobic disorders Research Paper Discuss issues of reliability and validity associated with the classification and diagnosis of phobic disorders (24 marks) The biological explanation for the acquisition of phobic disorders establishes that phobias are caused by genetics, innate influences and the principles of biochemistry.