The earliest civilizations which influenced the development of western culture were those of Mesopotamia ; the area of the Tigris—Euphrates river systemlargely corresponding to modern-day Iraqnortheastern Syriasoutheastern Turkey and southwestern Iran: What we think of as Western thought today originates primarily from Greco-Roman and Germanic influences, and includes the ideals of the Middle Agesthe Renaissanceand the Enlightenmentas well as Christian culture.
Counterfeit money Counterfeit money is currency that is produced without the legal sanction of the state or government and in deliberate violation of that country's laws. The United States Secret Servicemostly known for its guarding-of-officials task, was initially organized primarily to combat the counterfeiting of American money.
Counterfeit government bonds are public debt instruments that are produced without legal sanction, with the intention of "cashing them in" for authentic currency or using them as collateral to secure legitimate loans or lines of credit.
Counterfeiting of documents[ edit ] Main article: Forgery Forgery is the process of making or adapting documents with the intention to deceive. It is a form of fraudand is often a key technique in the execution of identity theft.
Uttering and publishing is a term in United States law for the forgery of non-official documents, such as a trucking company's time and weight logs. Questioned document examination is a scientific process for investigating many aspects of various documents, and is often used to examine the provenance and verity of a suspected forgery.
Security printing is a printing industry specialty, focused on creating legal documents which are difficult to forge. Counterfeiting of consumer goods[ edit ] Main article: Counterfeit consumer goods Bulk bag of counterfeit Viagra The spread of counterfeit goods commonly called "knock-offs" or "rip-offs" has become global in recent years and the range of goods subject to infringement has increased significantly.
Apparel and accessories accounted for over 50 percent of the counterfeit goods seized by U. S Customs and Border Control.
Some see the rise in counterfeiting of goods as being related to globalisation. As more and more companies, in an effort to increase profits, move manufacturing to the cheaper labour markets of the third world, areas with weaker labour laws or environmental regulations, they give the means of production to foreign workers.
These new managers of production have little or no loyalty to the original corporation. They see that profits are being made by the global brand for doing little other than advertising and see the possibilities of removing the middle men i. This can result in counterfeit products being virtually indistinguishable from original products, as they are being produced in the same company, and in damage to the parent corporation due to copyright infringement.
The counterfeiters either attempt to deceive the consumer into thinking they are purchasing a legitimate item, or convince the consumer that they could deceive others with the imitation.
An item which makes no attempt to deceive, such as a copy of a DVD with missing or different cover art or a book without a cover, is often called a "bootleg" or a "pirated copy" instead. Counterfeiting has also been issued to "cash in" on the ever growing record collecting market.
Some who produce these even do so with the wrong material. For example the song "Heartbreak Hotel" which was never released on Sun, as by the time Elvis' first heard it, prior to ever recording it, he had moved from Sun to RCA Victor.
Rare releases by The Beatles such as their album with the butcher coverfan-club only released Christmas records and early demonstration discs issued by EMI are also examples of product reproduced by counterfeiters due to their high value to collectors.Examine how globalisation has resulted in economic winners and losers (15) Globalisation is the process by which the world is becoming increasingly interconnected as a result of massively increased trade and cultural exchange.
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