Historiography[ edit ] Since the territory understood by the term 'Austria' underwent drastic changes over time, dealing with a History of Austria raises a number of questions, eg. Furthermore, should an Austrian history include the period —, when it nominally did not exist? Accordingly, within Austria there are also regionally and temporally varying affinities to adjacent countries.
Moscow and only properly made Emperor by Papal coronation, with all its expressed and implied conditions, not surprisingly was soon shown to be wielding a fatally compromised and fading form of power.
In the treatment here, "Francia" will mean all of Europe that in the Mediaeval period was subject to the Roman Catholic Church, with its Latin liturgy, headed by the Popethe Bishop of Rome.
Since the Pope retained the right to crown Emperors in the area subject to his Church, the Emperors in Charlemagne's line retained an implicit primacy, if not sovereignty, over all of Roman Catholic Europe, however little actual authority they may have exercised.
For many centuries, Latin was the principal, sometimes the only, written language over an area, "greater" Francia, that came to stretch from Norway to Portugal and from Iceland to Catholic parts of the Ukraine.
These men were even, significantly, figures getting into the modern period, not of the deep Middle Ages. One consequence of the dominance of Latin was the universal use of the Latin alphabet, and the borrowing of Latin vocabulary for vernacular languages from Norwegian to Hungarian.
In an age when alphabets went with religions, the only exception to this was the use of the Hebrew alphabet to write Spanish Ladino and German Yiddish by European Jews. The alphabet that had been developed to write Gothic disappeared with its language.
The old Runic alphabet also largely disappeared with the Christianization of Germany and Scandinavia, though its values were not forgotten. The use of Latin and its alphabet contrasts with the official use of Greek and its alphabet in Romania together with other special alphabets, like Armenian and the use of the Cyrillic alphabet in Russia.
World languages with their own traditional writing, like Chinese and Japanese, use Romanization extensively, both officially and unofficially.
The use of the Latin alphabet in Francia often goes along with languages, the Romance languages, that are themselves descended from Latin, like Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, and Romanian. On the other hand, Francia was the result of the West Roman Empire collapsing under the inroads of Germans and then of a new identity being formulated by the Germanic Franks.
The balance of power then, however, ended up being determined by another Germanic speaking power, England, coming in on the side of Romance speaking France. Meanwhile, the language family that was displaced by the Romans in Gaul and by the Angles and Saxons in Britain persists in the " Celtic Fringe" of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, including Brittanywhich was actually colonized with refugees from Celtic Britain.
Welsh betrays its heritage as the language of Roman Britain with Latin days of the week and other borrowings. In the East, the Slavic languages represent another boundary productive of conflict.
After the initial migration of Slavic speakers that pushed Germans behind the Elbe and replaced large areas of indigenous languages in the Balkans, German speakers moved steadily east until World War II, after which the Russians expelled many Germans and returned the boundary to about where it was in the 12th century.
Between the northern and southern Slavs, however, is a Romance speaking remnant in the Balkans, Romaniaand the Hungarianswho were the only steppe people to first invade Europe but then settle down and even retain their linguistic identity, despite their country often being called after the earlier and unrelated Huns.
The only other languages in Francia related to Hungarian, which is not an Indo-European language, are Finnish and Estonianwhich are probably at the western end of a very ancient distribution of the Uralic languages.
The language that has the best claim to being the autochthonous language of Francia is Basquewhich has no established affinities with any other language in the world and whose people have been determined by genetic studies to have been in the area since the Pleistocene.
On the southern edge of the map is a little bit of Francia, Maltawhere a language is spoken, Maltese, that is descended from Arabic and so unrelated to other modern languages in Francia.
This is a remnant of the Aghlabid conquest of Sicily, although now the Maltese have long been Catholic, and the language is written, of course, in the Latin alphabet.
The orange area on the map above merits special notice. Lithuanian and Lativian are the remaining Baltic languages.
They are more closely related to the Slavic languages than to the others, but are significant for their conservatism. Lithuanian is the only surviving Indo-European language with a tone accent.
Today, a tone accent is most conspicuous in Chinese. Historically, Lithuania holds the prize as the last country in Europe to become Christian, not definitively converting until the Grand Duke Jagiello Meanwhile, for a good two centuries it had played the role of a frontier, and a wild one, between Catholic Europe in the West and both Orthodoxy Muscovy and the Mongol Golden Horde in the East.
In doing so, however, he defeated what had previously represented the frontier of the West, the Teutonic Knights. The Knights had occupied the territory of the Prussians and converted them, while their compatriots, the Livonian Knights, had occupied the territory of the Latvians and converted them.
The Prussian language was also part of the Baltic group, but eventually the Prussians themselves became German speaking. Today, the original land of Prussia is divided between Poland and Russia, with most of the German speakers, including those who would have been ethnic Prussians, expelled.
Modern Latvialike Lithuania, has at long last again become independent. The original core of Francia, the Frankish Kingdom that came to dominate the West under Charlemagne, can be identified as those areas upon whose ruler the Pope at one time or another conferred a crown as the Roman Emperor.
Part of the Mediaeval theory of Papal power came to include this ultimate authority to create and legitimate secular authority. Outlying areas, Spain, Britain, Scandinavia, etc. Charlemagne himself ruled modern France, northern Italy, and most of modern Germany.
After the death of Charles the Fat inthe imperial title was fitfully conferred on Kings of Italyand then lapsed entirely in The "Empire" came to be regarded as consisting of four crowns: Lorrainewhich had been a separate kingdom in the inheritance of Charlemagne, soon become part of the system of "Stem Duchies" in Germany.
The title dux "leader"which was the Roman title of a frontier military commander, thus achieves its elevated Mediaeval meaning as a feudal title in relation to these units.collected taxes.
spread propaganda • Legal codes asserted male rights over women • Workers needed a permit to get a job • Newspapers were censored • Artists were paid to glorify alphabetnyc.com far was Napoleon Bonaparte an oppressive ruler in his domestic policies from ? • Oppressive domestic policies? How Far Was Napoleon Bonaparte An Oppressive Ruler In His Domestic Policies From “His main aim was to himself in power” How far do you agree with this view of Napoleon Bonaparte from to ?
Napoleon Bonaparte was created by the revolution of In his 15 years of ruling, he managed to consolidate many of the . Abraham Lincoln (February 12, – April 15, ) was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March until his assassination in April Lincoln led the United States through its greatest constitutional, military, and moral crises—the American Civil War—preserving the Union, abolishing slavery, strengthening the national government and modernizing the economy.
SUCCESSORS OF ROME: FRANCIA, Present. Kings and Emperors of the Franks, France, Burgundy, Italy, and Germany. Introduction. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, and the occupation of much of Gaul by the Franks, Roman power never returned far enough to come into conflict with the Frankish kingdom (except, to an extent, in the South of Italy).
alphabetnyc.com far was Napoleon Bonaparte an oppressive ruler in his domestic policies from to ?
The key issue is the assessment of Napoleon’s domestic policies. Foreign policy will be irrelevant unless mentioned briefly in an introduction or conclusion.
The Age of George III: Napoleon's France Between and the fate of France and Europe was in the hands of Napoleon Bonaparte, the man described by Chateaubriand as the 'mightiest breath of life which ever animated human clay'.