What is a Learning Disability? A learning disability is an area of weakness or inefficiency in brain function that significantly hinders our ability to learn.
Mathematical disorders Social skill deficits Not all students will exhibit these characteristics, and many pupils who demonstrate these same behaviors are successful in the classroom. For students with a learning disability, it is the quantity, intensity, and duration of these behaviors that lead to problems in school and elsewhere.
It should also be noted that boys are four times more likely to be labeled with a learning disability than girls. The reason for this has not yet been determined by researchers.
Psychological Processes Psychological processes is a broad term that incorporates the wide range of thinking skills we use to process and learn information. The five psychological, or cognitive, processes that are affected by a learning disability are perception, attention, memory, metacognition, and organization.
Perception Perception is the ability to organize and interpret the information experienced through the sensory channels, such as visual or auditory input. Perception is important to learning because it provides us with our first sensory impressions about something we see or hear.
A student relies on his perceptual abilities to recognize, compare, and discriminate information. An example would be the ability to distinguish the letter "B" from the letter "D" based on the overall shape, direction of the letter, and its parts.
Some children with learning disabilities reverse letters, words, or whole passages during reading or writing. Attention Attention is a broad term that refers to the ability to receive and process information.
Attention deficits are one of the disorders teachers most frequently associate with individuals with learning disabilities. Teachers may describe their students with learning disabilities as "distractible" or "in his own world.
Memory Memory involves many different skills and processes such as encoding the ability to organize information for learning. Students with learning disabilities may experience deficits in working memory which affects their ability to store new information and to retrieve previously processed information from long-term memory.
Metacognition Metacognition is the ability to monitor and evaluate performance. This process supplies many of the keys to learning from experience, generalizing information and strategies, and applying what you have learned. It requires the ability to: Identify and select learning skills and techniques to facilitate the acquisition of information Choose or create the setting in which you are most likely to receive material accurately Identify the most effective and efficient way to process and present information Evaluate and adapt your techniques for different materials and situations A deficit in any of these skills can have a major impact on the ability of a student to learn new information and apply it to any situation.
Organization Organization is the underlying thread of all these cognitive processes. The inability to organize information can affect the most superficial tasks or the most complex cognitive activities. Students with learning disabilities may have difficulties organizing their thought processes, their classwork, and their environment.
Any deficit in these areas can have a detrimental effect on the academic success of the student. Together, these five key processes enable us to receive information correctly, arrange it for easier learning, identify similarities and differences with other knowledge we have, select a way to learn the information effectively, and evaluate the effectiveness of our learning process.
If a student has problems doing any or all of these things, it is easy to see how all learning can be affected. Academic Achievement Because of the effect on cognitive processes, students with learning disabilities may have difficulty in a variety of academic areas as well as social and emotional development.
While a student with a learning disability may have difficulties in all academic areas, major problems are more often found in reading, language arts, and mathematics. Reading Reading is the most difficult skill area for the majority of students with learning disabilities.
Learning disabilities in reading encompass a vast array of reading issues including dyslexia. Some of the most common reading disabilities are word analysis, fluency, and reading comprehension.
Word analysis includes the ability to associate sounds with the various letters and letter combinations used to write them, to immediately recognize and remember words, and to use the surrounding text to help figure out a specific word. Word analysis is a foundational skill for reading.
For students with learning disabilities, it is a major issue to overcome to be a successful reader. Fluency is the rate of accurate reading correct words per minute.
With processing and word analysis issues, a high rate of reading fluency is often quite difficult for a student with a learning disability.Learning disabilities (LD) have a negative impact on the life of a student.
Most LD students usually show a weak academic achievement record. Nevertheless, little is known about the devastating impact of a learning disorder on a College student’s academic achievement and social life.
This Glossary explains influences related to student achievement published in John Hattie’s Visible Learning for teachers (Hattie ; ff).
You can find an older list of influences related to student achievement in Hattie () Visible Learning. In education, response to intervention (commonly abbreviated RTI or RtI) is an approach to academic intervention used in the United States to provide early, systematic, and appropriately intensive assistance to children who are at risk for or already underperforming as compared to appropriate grade- or age-level alphabetnyc.com seeks to promote academic success through universal screening, early.
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: THE IMPACT ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT. by. Hope Kathryn Sowell. Liberty University.
Public Impact is a team of professionals from many backgrounds, including former teachers, who want to devise and advance visionary but practical ideas to improve K–12 education. Specific learning disabilities can be defined by a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language. CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES: THE IMPACT ON STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT. by. Hope Kathryn Sowell. Liberty University. A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment.
A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment. The purpose of this study was threefold: (a) to examine the academic progress of students in reading, who have a learning disability in reading, as they transfer from pull-out support services to inclusion services; and (b) to examine the academic progress of general education students in reading, as they transfer from a general education setting to an .
High school students with learning disabilities in inclusive classrooms performed no differently in reading and math than students with disabilities who. Achievement of students with disabilities in inclusive classrooms the research on what impact this has on the academic achievement of students with disabilities has been .