This often involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as " white ". For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americansespecially in areas of the United States where racial segregation exists. Furthermore, people often self-identify as members of a race for political reasons.
This often involves the subjugation of groups defined as racially inferior, as in the one-drop rule used in the 19th-century United States to exclude those with any amount of African ancestry from the dominant racial grouping, defined as " white ". For instance, African-American English is a language spoken by many African Americansespecially in areas of the United States where racial segregation exists.
Furthermore, people often self-identify as members of a race for political reasons. Socioeconomic factors, in combination with early but enduring views of race, have led to considerable suffering within disadvantaged racial groups.
This use of racial categories is frequently criticized for perpetuating an outmoded understanding of human biological variation, and promoting stereotypes. Because in some societies racial groupings correspond closely with patterns of social stratificationfor social scientists studying social inequality, race can be a significant variable.
As sociological factors, racial categories may in part reflect subjective attributions, self-identitiesand social institutions. In the social sciences, theoretical frameworks such as racial formation theory and critical race theory investigate implications of race as social construction by exploring how the images, ideas and assumptions of race are expressed in everyday life.
A large body of scholarship has traced the relationships between the historical, social production of race in legal and criminal language, and their effects on the policing and disproportionate incarceration of certain groups.
Historical origins of racial classification See also: Historical race concepts The three great races according to Meyers Konversations-Lexikon of The subtypes of the Mongoloid race are shown in yellow and orange tones, those of the Caucasoid race in light and medium grayish spring green - cyan tones and those of the Negroid race in brown tones.
Dravidians and Sinhalese are in olive green and their classification is described as uncertain. These features are the distinguishing features of how the concept of race is used today.
In this way the idea of race as we understand it today came about during the historical process of exploration and conquest which brought Europeans into contact with groups from different continents, and of the ideology of classification and typology found in the natural sciences.
The rise of the Atlantic slave tradewhich gradually displaced an earlier trade in slaves from throughout the world, created a further incentive to categorize human groups in order to justify the subordination of African slaves.
A set of folk beliefs took hold that linked inherited physical differences between groups to inherited intellectualbehavioraland moral qualities. Brutal conflicts between ethnic groups have existed throughout history and across the world.
But the scientific classification of phenotypic variation was frequently coupled with racist ideas about innate predispositions of different groups, always attributing the most desirable features to the White, European race and arranging the other races along a continuum of progressively undesirable attributes.
The classification of Carl Linnaeusinventor of zoological taxonomy, divided the human species Homo sapiens into continental varieties of europaeus, asiaticus, americanus, and afer, each associated with a different humour: It was further argued that some groups may be the result of mixture between formerly distinct populations, but that careful study could distinguish the ancestral races that had combined to produce admixed groups.
He saw Africans as inferior to Whites especially in regards to their intellect, and imbued with unnatural sexual appetites, but described Native Americans as equals to whites. Polygenism was popular and most widespread in the 19th century, culminating in the founding of the Anthropological Society of Londonwhich, during the period of the American Civil War, broke away from the Ethnological Society of London and its monogenic stancetheir underlined difference lying, relevantly, in the so-called "Negro question": Multiregional hypothesis and Recent single origin hypothesis Today, all humans are classified as belonging to the species Homo sapiens.
However, this is not the first species of homininae: Homo erectus evolved more than 1. Virtually all physical anthropologists agree that Archaic Homo sapiens A group including the possible species H. Wilson then challenged the concept from the perspective of general animal systematics, and further rejected the claim that "races" were equivalent to "subspecies".
Subspecies The term race in biology is used with caution because it can be ambiguous.Free Gender Inequalities papers, essays, and research papers. The original essays in this much-needed collection broadly assess the contemporary patterns of crime as related to immigration, race, and ethnicity.
English parliamentary sources in date order plus alphabetical listing of references to Andrew Roberts book on the Lunacy Commission. Written by scholars of various disciplines, the essays in this volume dig beneath the veneer of Hawai‘i’s myth as a melting pot paradise to uncover historical and complicated cross-racial dynamics.
Section I - Dimensions of Social Inequality Begin by identifying yourself on the dimensions commonly associated with social inequalities: social class (income, wealth, (current and intended) education level, occupational prestige (associated with current or planned career), race, ethnicity, and gender.
Below is an essay on "Inequalities Or Race And Ethnicity" from Anti Essays, your source for research papers, essays, and term paper examples. The Leader of the Oilfield Workers Trade Union, the Chairman, Members of the Union, specially invited guests, .