Masculinity and politics

Connell opens chapter 9 of " Masculinities ", titled "Masculinity Politics" by indicating the fact the public politics is masculine politics in almost every sense. Even in western countries women are still heavily underrepresented in power position, with a variety of formal barriers and hidden strategies to keep them out of the public sphere. Connell defines masculinity politics as all those process and struggles regarding the male gender and its position within gender relations.

Masculinity and politics

So few are competitive female runs at the White House that we can count them on one hand. TBR Research presents insights and excerpts from peer-reviewed scholarship. Inthe presidential race is likely to feature a female candidate if Hillary Clinton ultimately decides to runand an end to this streak is possible.

Yet, given the difficulties women face when running for most elected offices, including the challenges of gendered media coverage discussed below, her road to the White House may be a long and arduous one. One possible means of overcoming negative media coverage would be for Hillary to campaign not as a woman, per se, but as an experienced, gender-neutral candidate, given what we know from past research that assesses how media treat female candidates.

Numerous political scientists have examined the degree to which the media perpetuates the association of women candidates with femininity by analyzing media coverage of candidates during elections.

Even though many women who run for office deliberately avoid using feminine terms to describe themselves and shy away from emphasizing their families which might remind voters of their familial obligationsthe media consistently covers women in feminine terms, focuses on their appearance over more substantive policy issues and uses masculine metaphors i.

Overall, there appears to be a positive bias for male candidates in media coverage of elections. However, I suggest the bias may not necessarily be for male candidates, but instead for masculine candidates, and thus, in races where two men are running it is possible that the candidate perceived to be less masculine is subject to the same media bias observed in general for female candidates.

Indeed, not all men who run for office comply with our stereotypical notions of manliness and masculinity, embodied by that independent, singularly focused, win-at-all-cost, mentality. Similarly, female candidates perceived as more masculine may in fact receive less biased media coverage.

The basis of this argument stems from notions of leadership in the United States, which largely embrace masculinity and reject femininity, as well as the Western cultural construction of gender, which treats masculinity and femininity as defined in opposition to each other, and thus largely incapable of coexisting within the same individual.

In American politics, femininity is often considered synonymous with weakness, and antithetical to leadership. Typically, masculine traits are preferred in public officials, as is expertise on more masculine issues, such as national security.

Particularly in the context of the White House, feminine traits and feminine issues are largely deemed as less relevant. Yet feminine characteristics are not bereft of leadership potential. Empathy, deliberation, cooperation and understanding are characteristics that are valuable leadership traits.

Yet, due to our cultural expectations of leadership as masculine, to express feminine traits is to be a weak leader. The focus of my research is the extent that the media plays a role in maintaining this gender hierarchy, where masculinity is the norm and preference in American politics, and in particular in the presidency.

This gendered distinction between candidates is consistent enough to project to readers and voters that one candidate is the more masculine choice, whereas the other candidate is the more feminine choice.

I analyzed a total of character focused articles, largely from The New York Times and USA Today, with attention paid to described traits, behaviors and personal styles on which journalists chose to focus. I use this data to assess several different components of gender discourse in presidential elections.

From the sample of character focused articles, for all election years under analysis, 1, traits were recorded. Of these traits, most were noted as neutral 56 percent ; 30 percent were noted to be masculine traits, and 14 percent were noted as feminine traits.

Masculinity and politics

Positive masculine traits used to describe the candidates included resolute, decisive and courageous; negative feminine traits included weak, indecisive and erratic; gender neutral traits included liar, intelligent and relaxed.

Yet, descriptions framed in this manner reiterate the importance of masculinity in our political leaders, and the understanding that those unable to live up to the masculine standard need not apply.

It would be very unlikely, for example, to see the news media refer to a candidate in terms of kindness or warmth because there is not an expectation for American presidents to be kind or warm. In other words, it is acceptable for a president to lack positive feminine qualities, but it is unacceptable for a president to lack positive masculine qualities, especially those related to strength.

When feminine traits are used to describe candidates, it is those traits that are not socially desirable; feminine traits are rarely used to describe candidates in positive terms. To appreciate more fully the degree to which feminine and masculine traits are negative or positive, I randomly selected an appropriate number of feminine and masculine traits from the full population of gendered traits to be analyzed for tone.

For the feminine traits sample, 69 percent of the traits used were negative in connotation; 31 percent were positive. For the masculine traits sample, 67 percent of the traits used were positive in connotation; 31 percent were negative and 2 percent were neutral.

I also use the data to assess the existence of gender conflict framing. Media coverage of presidential elections — regardless of its utility as a journalistic practice — tends to be reductionist, characterizing candidates as occupying opposing sides of a two-sided conflict.

The prominent dichotomy of gender as masculine versus feminine lends itself to the negative and combative nature of elections, and journalistic practices and routines of political reporting.What do you think about the fact that Trump's childhood hero and model of sophisticated American masculinity was Hefner?

Before the election, I kept pointing out that the mainstream media based in. Sperm count, or sperm concentration to avoid confusion with total sperm count, measures the concentration of sperm in a man’s ejaculate, distinguished from total sperm count, which is the sperm count multiplied with volume.[5].

Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behaviors, and roles associated with boys and alphabetnyc.com a social construct, it is distinct from the definition of the male biological sex. Standards of manliness or masculinity vary across different cultures and historical periods.

Both males and females can exhibit masculine traits and behavior.

Masculinity and politics

Sexual Discretion: Black Masculinity and the Politics of Passing [Jeffrey Q. McCune Jr.] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. African American men who have sex with men while maintaining a heterosexual lifestyle in public are attracting increasing interest from both the general media and scholars/5(7).

C hildren’s writer Ben Brooks is on a mission to redefine masculinity for young boys. “I want to help boys become better, happier men and open up a debate about what we think of as masculinity.

A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.

Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are exceptions and variations.

Authors steer boys from toxic masculinity with gentler heroes | Books | The Guardian