Although previous studies have found similar trends, this investigation is the first to assess the risk of transmission per sex act in an area where multiple sexual partners and a lack of male circumcision are common, and to take religious and ethnic differences into account. Although sub-Saharan Africa has a high prevalence of HIV-1 infection, the spread of the virus has not been uniform across the region.
You can help by adding to it. July Clinical trials are experiments done in clinical research. Such prospective biomedical or behavioral research studies on human participants are designed to answer specific questions about biomedical or behavioral interventions, including new treatments such as novel vaccinesdrugsdietary choicesdietary supplementsand medical devices and known interventions that warrant further study and comparison.
Clinical trials generate data on safety and efficacy. Clinical trials can vary in size and cost, and they can involve a single research center or multiple centersin one country or in multiple countries.
Clinical study design aims to ensure the scientific validity and reproducibility of the results. Trials can be quite costly, depending on a number of factors.
The sponsor may be a governmental organization or a pharmaceuticalbiotechnology or medical device company. Certain functions necessary to the trial, such as monitoring and lab work, may be managed by an outsourced partner, such as a contract research organization or a central laboratory.
Human subjects in psychology and sociology[ edit ] Stanford prison experiment[ edit ] Main article: Stanford prison experiment A study conducted by Philip Zimbardo in examined the effect of social roles on college students at Stanford University. Twenty-four male students were assigned to a random role of a prisoner or guard to simulate a mock prison in one of Stanford's basements.
After only six days, the abusive behavior of the guards and the psychological suffering of prisoners proved significant enough to halt the two-week-long experiment.
This study would show whether or not prisoners and guards have conflict which make conflict inevitable. This conflict would be due to possible sadistic behavior of guards dispositional or due to the hostile environment of the prison positional.
Due to the fact that prisoners could lack respect for the law and guards could behave in a hostile manner due to the power structure of the social environment that are within prisons.
Yet, if prisoners and guards behaved in a non aggressive way, this would support the dispositional hypothesis. If the prisoners were just to behave in the same way that people did in real life, this would support the positional hypotheses. Using human subjects for this experiment is vital because the results is based on the way a human would react, with behaviors only humans obtain.
Human subjects are the best way to get successful results from this type of experiment. The results of this experiment showed that people will readily conform to the specific social roles they are supposed to play.
The prison environment played a part in making the guards behavior more brutal, due to the fact that none of the participants showed this type of behavior beforehand.
Most of the guards had a hard time believing they had been acting in such ways. This evidence concludes this to be positional behavior, meaning the behavior was due to the hostile environment of the prison. Milgram Experiment InYale University psychologist Stanley Milgram led a series of experiments to determine to what extent an individual would obey instructions given by an experimenter.
Placed in a room with the experimenter, subjects played the role of a "teacher" to a "learner" situated in a separate room. The subjects were instructed to administer an electric shock to the learner when the learner answered incorrectly to a set of questions.
The intensity of this electric shock was to be increased for every incorrect answer. The learner was a confederate i.
Both prerecorded sounds of electric shocks and the confederate's pleas for the punishment to stop were audible to the "teacher" throughout the experiment. When the subject raised questions or paused, the experimenter insisted that the experiment should continue.
Despite widespread speculation that most participants would not continue to "shock" the learner, 65 percent of participants in Milgram's initial trial complied until the end of the experiment, continuing to administer shocks to the confederate with purported intensities of up to " volts".
Asch conformity experiments Psychologist Solomon Asch 's classic conformity experiment in involved one subject participant and multiple confederates; they were asked to provide answers to a variety of different low-difficulty questions. In a control group of participants, the percentage of error was less than one percent.
However, when the confederates unanimously chose an incorrect answer, 75 percent of the subject participants agreed with the majority at least once. The study has been regarded as significant evidence for the power of social influence and conformity.
In light of this competition, the groups resorted to name-calling and other displays of resentment, such as burning the other group's team flag. The hostility continued and worsened until the end of the three-week study, when the groups were forced to work together to solve problems.
Bystander effect The bystander effect is demonstrated in a series of famous experiments by Bibb Latane and John Darley  In each of these experiments, participants were confronted with a type of emergency, such as the witnessing of a seizure or smoke entering through air vents.
A common phenomenon was observed that as the number of witnesses or "bystanders" increases, so does the time it takes for individuals to respond to the emergency.
This effect has been shown to promote the diffusion of responsibility by concluding that, when surrounded by others, the individual expects someone else to take action. Cognitive dissonance Human subjects have been commonly used in experiments testing the theory of cognitive dissonance after the landmark study by Leon Festinger and Merrill Carlsmith.
After the completion of these tasks, the subjects were instructed to help the experiment continue in exchange for a variable amount of money. All the subjects had to do was simply inform the next "student" waiting outside the testing area who was secretly a confederate that the tasks involved in the experiment were interesting and enjoyable.
A subsequent survey showed that, by a large margin, those who received less money for essentially "lying" to the student came to believe that the tasks were far more enjoyable than their highly paid counterparts.Research within librarian-selected research topics on AIDS and HIV from the Questia online library, including full-text online books, academic journals, magazines, newspapers and .
The PULSUS group publishes cutting-edge journals covering the full spectrum of biology and medicine. Below is a list of scientific journals published by the PULSUS group. Both the print and electronic publications are included.
Arc is the first and so far only non-viral protein known to behave this way. HIV/AIDS research includes all medical research that attempts to prevent, treat, or cure HIV/AIDS, as well as fundamental research about the nature of HIV as an infectious agent and AIDS as the disease caused by HIV.
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