The views expressed herein are those of Mr. Turner and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Commission, the Commissioners, or other members of the Commission's staff.
Job stress in organizations is widespread. About half of all American workers feel the pressures of job-related stress. Extensive research shows that excessive job stress can adversely affect the emotional and physical health of workers. The result is decreased productivity, less satisfied, and less healthy workers.
This paper will first discuss the symptoms and causes of stress, and then explore ways in which managers might reduce stress in themselves and their subordinates. Definition of Stress Stress is an imprecise term. It is usually defined in terms of the internal and external conditions that create stressful situations, and the symptoms that people experience when they are stressed.
McGrath proposed a definition based on the conditions necessary for stress. So there is a potential for stress when an environmental situation is perceived as presenting a demand that threatens to exceed the person's capabilities and resources for meeting it, under conditions where he expects a substantial differential in the rewards and costs from meeting the demand versus not meeting it.
This would lead to the conclusion that a person's level of stress depends on their self-perceived abilities and self-confidence. Stress is correlated with a person's fear of failure.
Arnold and Feldman define stress as "the reactions of individuals to new or threatening factors in their work environment. This definition also highlights the fact that reactions to stressful situations are individualized, and can result in emotional, perceptual, behavioral, and physiological changes.
Like McGrath, they point out that stress is a result of a "perceived" threat, and is not necessarily related to actual environmental conditions. The amount of stress that is produced by a given situation depends upon one's perception of the situation, not the situation itself.
In other words, stress is a relativistic phenomena. In Gestalt Therapy Verbatim Real People Press, Perls proposes a more general definition, where stress is a manifestation of thinking about the future. Anxiety is created by focusing attention away from the "here and now".
It is created by expectations of the future--the tension between the now and the later.
According to Perls, there is no difference between good stress and bad stress. They are both created by thinking about the future. When anxiety finds an outlet, we say that the stress was motivating; when it doesn't, we call it debilitating.
French, Kast, and Rosenzweig also emphasized the idea that stress itself is not necessarily bad. Stress levels that exceed an optimum level result in decreased performance and eventual burnout. Stress levels below a minimum level result in decreased performance and "rust-out".
Symptoms of Stress Selye was the first to describe the phases that the body goes through in response to a threat. The general adaptation syndrome model states that the body passes through three stages. The first stage is an alarm reaction.
The body prepares for a potential emergency. Digestion slows down, the heart beats faster, blood vessels dilate, blood pressure rises, and breathing becomes rapid and deep.
All bodily systems work together to provide maximum energy for fight or flight.Why is monitoring and controlling the project cost important for the success of the project? What are some key components to monitor the health of the project, as it relates to earned value?
How is earned value management different than straight financial accounting? Education is a key element in successfully moving from dependency to self-reliance.
Goal 2 responses more often addressed housing and quality of life issues. Goal 3 more specifically relates to encouraging and promoting community stake-holding, such as civic involvement and investment, increasing participation, and creating and developing.
Why is monitoring and controlling the project cost important for the success of the project? What are some key components to monitor the health of the project, as it relates to earned value?
How is earned value management different than straight financial accounting? As the PM it is your. The Scott and Rothman ; Waddock ) that advantage of the broad view over the narrow one is promote the ‘responsibility–profitability connection’ that the broad view allows the firm to value and and assert that CSR leads to long-term shareholder appreciate the complex relationship between CSR value.
Getting Smart About Change Management. Its value lies in managing a program of change rather than an individual project or initiative. 8 Effective program management is concerned with fine-tuning the program’s overall governance, empowering leadership at all levels, engaging the full organization, and providing visibility into the.
After months of consultation and careful consideration, recommendations have been proposed to address deficiencies related to five key components of the legislation: its purpose and principles, governance model, labour structure, safety framework, and tariff-setting process.