What did Historical Swords Weigh? Clements "never overlay thy selfe with a heavy weapon, for nimblenesse of bodie, and nimblenesse of weapon are two chief helpes for thy advantage" - Joseph Swetnam, The Schoole of the Noble and Worthy Science of Defence, Just how heavy were swords from the Middle Ages and Renaissance? This question perhaps the most commonly encountered in this subject is easily answered by knowledgeable students of the subject.
Collected Essays on Spinoza 1. Life and Works Spinoza came into the world a Jew. Born inWhat are two types of essays was the son of Marrano parents.
They had immigrated to Amsterdam from Portugal in order to escape the Inquisition that had spread across the Iberian Peninsula and live in the relatively tolerant atmosphere of Holland.
Spinoza's father, Michael, was a successful merchant and a respected member of the community. His mother, Hanna, the second of Michael's three wives, died injust before Spinoza was to turn six.
The young Spinoza, given the name Baruch, was educated in his congregation's academy, the Talmud Torah school.
There he received the kind of education that the community deemed necessary to constitute one as an educated Jew. This largely consisted of religious studyincluding instruction in Hebrew, liturgy, Torah, prophetic writings, and rabbinical commentaries.
Although Spinoza no doubt excelled in these, he did not move on to the higher levels of study which focused on the Talmud and were typically undertaken by those preparing for the rabbinate. Whether by desire or by necessity, Spinoza left the school in order to work in his father's business, which he eventually took over with his half-brother, Gabriel.
The Jewish community in Amsterdam was by no means a closed onebut Spinoza's commercial activities put him in touch with more diverse currents of thought than those to which he had hitherto been exposed. Most significantly, he came into contact with so-called 'free-thinking' Protestants - dissenters from the dominant Calvinism — who maintained a lively interest in a wide range of theological issues, as well as in the latest developments in philosophy and science.
This naturally included the work of Descartes, which was regarded by many in Holland to be the most promising of several alternatives to scholasticism that had emerged in recent decades.
In order to discuss their interests, these free-thinkers organized themselves into small groups, they called colleges, which met on a regular basis.
Spinoza may have attended such meetings as early as the first half of the 's, and it is most likely here that he received his first exposure to Cartesian thought. This is not to say that Spinoza ceased to mine the resources of his own tradition - he became steeped, for example, in the writings of such philosophically important figures as Maimonides and Gersonides - but his intellectual horizons were expanding and he was experiencing a restlessness that drove him to look further afield.
It was at this time that he placed himself under the tutelage of an ex-Jesuit, Franciscus Van den Enden, who had recently set up a Latin school in Amsterdam. Van den Enden turned out to be the perfect teacher for Spinoza.
In addition to having an excellent reputation as a Latinist, he was a medical doctor who kept abreast of all that was new in the sciences.
He was also notorious for his allegedly irreligious cast of mind, and he was a passionate advocate of democratic political ideals.
It is safe to say that Spinoza's studies with Van den Enden included more than lessons on how to decline nouns. Spinoza's intellectual reorientation, however, came at a cost.
His increasingly unorthodox views and, perhaps, laxity in his observance of the Jewish law strained his relations with the community. Tensions became so great that, inthe elders of the synagogue undertook proceedings to excommunicate him.
It then levels a series of curses against him and prohibits others from communicating with him, doing business with him, reading anything he might write, or even coming into close proximity with him. Spinoza may still have been a Jew, but he was now an outcast.Benedict De Spinoza (—) Benedict de Spinoza was among the most important of the post-Cartesian philosophers who flourished in the second half of the 17th alphabetnyc.com made significant contributions in virtually every area of philosophy, and his writings reveal the influence of such divergent sources as Stoicism, Jewish Rationalism, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Descartes, and a variety of.
The following sample IELTS essays will give you an idea of how to develop your essay topic into a well-structured, full-length alphabetnyc.com the essays below will help you; however, the first free sample essay “Computers and Children”, will help you in a special way as it provides two responses to the same essay – one which is good and the other which is great.
English for Specific Purposes World, ISSN , alphabetnyc.com, Issue 40, vol. 14, Error Analysis of Written English Essays: The case of Students. Looking for a free sample of essays? Let us find the best one for you! What is your topic? Apr 14, · A narrative essay usually involves the telling of some kind of story.
There are two common types of narrative essays – short stories and book reports. If your narrative essay is going to be more of a story, you might want to consider a creative writing class. There are some guidelines that should be followed no matter what type of narrative essay you’re alphabetnyc.com: Natasha Quinonez.
Effective communication is a fundamental requirement for agile modeling. You need to recognize that you have several communication options available to you, as Figure 1 shows, and that you want to pick the best communication option for your current situation.